Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance

Part A

1. State your dissertation title (as it currently stands, if it is not yet defined formulate a title which tentatively covers the main ground of your research as you understand it).

The title for the dissertation is Customer Relationship Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural Significance.
Realizing the diverse needs of the customers the companies are consequently adjusting their customer hand-outs and strategies by moving from product centric to “customer centric” (Wang et al., 2006, p. 288) approach. “Customer relationship management” (Subrahmanyam and Hari, 2014, p. 31) is the concern, improvement, preservation and optimization of extended equally valuable correlation among consumers and the organization “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

2. State your research questions as they stand at the moment.

a. How effectively is Customer Relationship Management (CRM) aiding the hospitality management in Hotel Horizon International?
b. Investigate the methods adopted by the management of Horizon International to identify the customer segments who need engaging relationship in the culturally significant location Guruvayoor?
c. How do customer attraction methods of hotel Horizon International work out to increase the customer’s loyalty index and to what extent do customer withholding programs control customer’s loyalty?
d. Find out the level of empowerment of staff, starting from the front office to the integrated marketing and service departments.

3. State your chosen research paradigm and its justification briefly.

The theoretical basis behind this study is to compare several customer relationship theories that will be framed into hypothesis for this research. The perception of CRM elements in terms of knowledge for managers or employees which affects the customer forms as a crucial part for the research will define the research approach. The main research philosophy of Ontology is defining the current which exists, that can be known and how part forms is the Epistemology philosophy. “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

The current research will choose positivism as CRM theory and knowledge which will be framed through hypothesis for testing it in the Horizon International, Guruvayoor. The knowledge will be generated as facts that will be procured after identifying the respondent groups: managers (employees) and customers and record their responses from Horizon International, Guruvayoor.

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Research approach to the above topic will use deductive which will test the already existing theories of CRM. The research strategy available is: experiment, survey, case study, action research, grounded theory, archival research and ethnography. The research will use the survey methodology that will enable to collect large amount of data from the target respondent group in reasonable amount of time (Schindler and Cooper, 2006). Interviews additionally will be conducted for separate respondent group (managers) to substantiate the research objectives and questions for effective analysis. The mixed method of quantitative and qualitative primary data collection method will enable to test hypothesis better. The use of descriptive statistics will further help to find the genuineness to increase the reliability and validity of the research.

Part B

a) Given the above parameters identify the principle methods of obtaining data that are available to you, the types of data you could obtain and the implications for your research of each method.

Choosing the most suitable research methods, strategies, tools and techniques of analysis is essential to resolve the research problems and reach objective base conclusions. While conducting a market research to find out the effectiveness of Customer relation management in a hospitality-based venture a question often arises that how should it be conducted. By means of both quantitative research methods and deep knowledge coming from unstructured qualitative approaches or choosing any one suitable method. “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

Data can be obtained by using case studies, surveys, observation, focus groups, and interviews. However the choice of each method depends on its feasibility, cost effectiveness and limitations while being applied to collect data.

Quantitative data collection:

In order to resolve the above questions identified in the research, the most appropriate methods for obtaining key data will depend on the nature of research paradigm chosen, the approach and design selected. As opined by Jadhav and Mundhe, (2011, p. 2824), choosing the most suitable data collection method – physical access to human participants, postal mail, internet, focus group administration, telephonic or face to face interviews is strongly related to the sample frame, area under study, characteristics of the sample, and availability of facilities, its implications for the response rates and involved costs.

Survey Methodology:

Survey methodology primarily helps in collecting quantitative data from a chosen sample in a population. It is collected through the distribution of questionnaires, either online or offline. Closed ended questions may be formed regarding the various dimensions relating to CRM, the strategies undertaken by the Hotel Horizon to maintain their CRM. However, the main limitation of surveys is that it fails to provide in-depth data reflecting the emotions and real life experiences of the human participants involved in the area under study. The involvement of biased response cannot be ruled out in case of questionnaire survey and the validity of the data can also be questioned (Vavra, 1997, p. 369).

However, questionnaire is one of the most cost effective, easy and suitable methods of collecting extensive numerical data without gaining direct/physical access to the human participants. “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

Research on CRM in the hotel industry generally would be based on the following attributes that increase the customer satisfaction:
Product Specifications: The importance of the technical and functional features such as exterior features, lobby, attached restaurant, bedroom, and leisure facilities etc (Motwani and Sower, 2006, p. 294). Top most preference is given to cleanliness, excellence of the furniture accessories, design, and fashion.
Functional attributes: Keeping up the “reputation” (Manhas, 2012, p. 206) of the hotel is the first step towards CRM. This is usually maintained by unique style of services, relevance of providing services, staff courteousness and compassion towards customers.
Price: Customer satisfaction and loyalty is often regulated by the “price charged” (Vavra, 1997, p. 369) and the pricing policy of the Hotel. Customers prefer a transparent pricing policy.

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Placement and Reservations: The customer relation techniques are formulated according to the location. This is because the location often determines the type of customers that hotel will get, and in some cases, it is seen that customers are loyal to special geographical areas. The accuracy of “reservation” (Meredith and Shafer, 2009, p. 179) services and methods adopted for it shall determine the customer satisfaction.
While conducting the market research to find out the scope of customer relation management in hotel, application of both “quantitative” (Wood and Brotherton, 2008, p. 318) research methods and unfathomable information coming from unstructured qualitative approaches are used.

Qualitative data collection:

While conducting studies on effective customer relation management leading to customer satisfaction and loyalty, a simple research result often does not provide sufficient data for the improvements in the provision of services. The qualitative market research can be opted when it requires justification and investigation of qualitative studies.


Unlike the survey methodology, interview is an instrument that discloses the real life information in detail that otherwise would not have been possible to capture in quantitative survey questionnaires (Research: Successful Approaches, 2008, p. 69). The fundamental nature of the issues encountered can therefore be determined with the deep probing capabilities which interview method offers (Reid and Bojanic, 2010, p. 191).
Qualitative “market research” (Nykiel, 2009, p. 39) is to a large extent more biased research, which derives its conclusions from a smaller, more focused group of individuals aiming through perceptive of human conduct and the motive that administers such conducts. This primarily is achieved through in depth interviews. The “interview method” (Agarwal, 2006, p. 186) that usually involves a one-on-one interaction, has a prospect of impulsive and authentic responses that can be used for common market research conclusions. Due to the flexibility, the individuals get an occasion to express their opinions freely through elaborations which is not possible in other methods. There is an opportunity of observing authentic reactions from the respondent groups and develop a deeper understanding of the views and new perspectives of respondents. The information acknowledged from the interviews is thus much significant deeper, often very comprehensive and affluent. “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

Unlike a “prearranged” (Ritchie and Goeldner, 1994, p. 99) interview where the questions are prearranged and the range of responses is predetermined, the amorphous interviews prop up free play style of respondents’ reply.

Case Studies

This method helps to carry out either qualitative or quantitative research depending on the nature of the research problem being identified. Case studies involves selection of few examples/cases regarding the phenomenon that need to be studied followed by investigation of the characteristics of the chosen examples/cases. Case study method will be available when there is sufficient material and published data regarding the customer relationship management of the chosen organization is available from secondary sources such as journals, articles, websites etc (Research: Successful Approaches, 2008, p. 69). Choosing a case study method in this research will involving complexity because multiple sources of already published data will be required which is absent in this research.

The responses of the primary data i.e. the customers of the hotels can be approached at the time of check-in at the hotel, or when they are available in lounge, coffee shop, pool side.

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The importance of the survey questionnaire methodology conducted in the hospitality industry should be semi-structured or amorphous, because it permits the investigator to be supple and to get as much data as feasible. It can be carried out in comfortable ambience of the hotel lobby and the customers can be given the opportunity to fix the time. The interviewer can explain the nature, purpose of the questionnaire, rationale of research, primarily asking for any information concerning customer activity. This consent for time and agreeableness for participation in the research survey is an essential component for research methodology and ethics. “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

b. Identify which method you believe to be the most suitable to your research and justify your choice.
The “hotel industry” (Jadhav and Mundhe, 2011, p. 2824) is heavily dependent on information, which has been the vital element of the “e-business applications” (Chen and Popovich, 2003, p. 686) and the hotels around the globe are forming “customer relationship management” (p. 686) (CRM) with an aim of disseminating, applying and capturing knowledge of customers to create exclusive customer experience and to improve profitability. CRM is explained as an “information technology” (Jadhav and Mundhe, 2011, p. 2822) depending on the strategic initiatives that allow the rearrangement of the organizational activities around the customers for providing consistent and more personalized service at the immediate finger touch of the customer.

CRM has been gaining importance in the current years, and most firms invest more on research and development sector, for improving their facilities and services. Data relating to the customers have to be stored in the form of “databases” (Asabere and Doku, 2013, p. 22) in relation to the analysis, pulling out the “customer turnover” (p. 22) and making their behavior clear and easily understandable. Access to that information through-out the departments may be dispersed geographically with an easy access for the customers with provisions of speedy “online booking” (Jadhav and Mundhe, 2011, p. 2824) customized communications which allows the customer to feel really special and valued even if the reality may be that they are just one of thousands or millions of customers.

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In this study, the researcher will collect both “primary and secondary data” (Ahmadi et al., 2012, p. 5). Secondary data has been obtained through the hotel’s “website” (p. 5) and Annual company reports. Other sources of data includes articles, books, and journals on “customer relationship management” (p. 5) of the related industry concentrating on the customer satisfaction retention and loyalty. Secondary data collection is comparatively easy and inexpensive and forms the basis of research scope as to how much data can be collected before primary research is done. “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

In primary data collection arena, the “Qualitative approach” (Chiang, 2013, p. 115) of collecting data is a significant source for a research and has been collected through a deep “face to face” (p. 120) interaction with the employees, managers of the Horizon international Hotel, along with the analysis of customer’s “comment cards” (Rosman and Stuhura, 2013, p. 20) for obtaining information of how a customer feel about the Hotel’s “customer relationship management” (p. 18). The researcher collected information through the interviews and documentation since secondary research based evidences are not present in case of hotels based in culturally significant places. Thus, the researcher will discuss with the hotel manager to get expert opinion about the hotel and gain insight into its functioning in relation with the research topic.

Therefore, the suitability of survey methodology over the other methods is apt as it provides an opportunity to gather larger amount of response data in shorter period of time which is primary in nature.

The success of the “Hotel industry,” (Jadhav and Mundhe, 2011, p. 2824) service to its customers has always been an important priority. In order to attain this, they utilize technology, develop classy websites which allow “potential customers” to see what kind of facilities or services are being offered. Enabling “online booking” (Cezar and Ogut, 2014, p. 225) is a source for gathering information about preferences of every customer. The collected information has been utilized for providing “loyalty programs” (Creating Customer Value, Satisfaction, and Loyalty, 2009) to commercial customers. These processes have to be in proper order for ensuring that every staff from receptionist to the manager, cleaning staff to the chef, all may have undergone the necessary training and workshops for providing a consistent, seamless and “customize products” (p. 67) to the public. “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

This is to say that, the useful data relating to customers may be gathered by the interactions with employees or through different IT systems within the hotel itself, and the criteria for knowing whether the CRM is successful or not, is necessary to transform “customer data” (Rababah, Mohd and Ibrahim, 2011, p. 23) in to consumer knowledge. With this correlation, it can be articulated that, “customer relationship” (p. 23) results to a positive effect on the “organizational performance” (p. 25). It is to be taken into consideration that the success of “relationship management” (Amoako et al., 2012, p. 17) is largely dependent on ability to design systems to capture customer data, its robust collection process and applying tools to analysis of customer data. As a fact, it is vital for the hotels to remain viable, and this objective cannot be attained unless they have extensive awareness about their market, exploring and making use of the existing information about their own customers. Hence, an investigation of the effect of managing “information” (p. 20) dimension upon the “hotel industry” (p. 20) in the future researches is recommended. Under this study, there is a limited research, which explains the importance of managing “information” (p. 20) in the hotel and hospitality industry.

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On the other hand, hotels that maintain a lot of customer data to be distributed amongst their various departments to crossell and promote relationship based “ internal marketing strategy” (Kangal, 2014) for achieving the customer preferences and needs. In addition to that, “customer value” (2014) management is associated with the marketing abilities and it largely enables the organization to carry out “strategic marketing process” (2014) for the improvement of their performances. The scope and effectiveness of CRM was assessed through a number of methods, containing financial performances, the market share, customer satisfaction index and customer retention, and percentage of increasing “sales” (2014). “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

The usage of “performance analysis” (Kale, 2014, p. 316) is helpful as recommended by the past researches. Thus this study will employ “Balance Scorecard (BSC)” (p. xxvi) dimensions for evaluating the effects of “CRM packages” (p. 101) on the performance of the hotel under study. The research will contain an analysis of “Balance Scorecard (BSC)” (p. xxvi) framework where the performance of the hotel will be done holistically. The overall “performance perspective” (Fischer, 2003, p. 45) must be used in the valuation of “CRM” results (Ajami et al., 2012, p. 169). In addition to that, the use of “balance scorecard (BSC)” (Kale, 2014, p. xxvi) for evaluating the impacts of “CRM” (Ajami et al., 2012, p. 169) on hotel’s “business performance” (Dwyer, 2002, p. 33) will be a new angle to view hotel performance holistically. This integrated approach to business analysis will provide a detailed understanding of the organization’s total operational performance. Marketers may have great uses of customer “database” (p. 132), but to link strategy based output for hotel will make it more effective “marketing efforts” (p. 106). Knowing the customer is a grand advantage and makes it easier to compete with rival companies. This also allows the hotel for predicting their future “customer needs” (p. 195). The initial step is to collect information about the customer demographics, user habits and preferences, purchase frequency, mode of payment, enrich the data repository and helps to frame suitable “marketing strategies” (p. 200) for every segment. There must adequate focus placed towards the collection of more data from different segments (employees across hierarchy), which bring in the finest revenue. Primary responses collected will give more detailed insights to the CRM driven “marketing efforts” (p. 106) on functional levels. , though, the techniques in which this information is gathered and what type of data is being enquired should be carefully prepared. “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

Only excellent and basic information must be of interest, bad “quality of the data” (Bickerton, Bickerton and Pardesi, 2007, p. 51) may damage the hotel as it might lead to the formation of wrong decisions. Unnecessary queries and too many “questions” (p. 236) will simply irritate the respondent that can lead in the lack of interest in being supportive. Listening to the feedbacks and creating conversations with the customer is the basis of “customer relationship” (Yazdanifard et al., 2011).

In addition to the interviews and surveys conducted by using the questionnaire, the aim was to examine, how “satisfied” the customers (Schindler and Cooper, 2006, p. 207) were with the facilities and “marketing effort” (p. 115) of Horizon International. For this purpose, questionnaire was formed, and then handed over to the investigators.

A discussion was conducted to decide the “sample size” (p. 447) amongst the huge guests checking in and out in the hotel. So with over thousands of guests population the sampling and technique of distributing it was chosen as random sampling. The sample size chosen was 150 for the customers through physical distribution of survey questionnaire. The research will be more valid when varied responses from the respondent groups are having equal chance of representation in the primary research survey. When the simple random sampling fell short of targeted 100, some hotel guests were emailed through online forms. Only fully completed questionnaires were considered as they are valid responses while incomplete ones had to be rejected. In this manner, the proposed 150 customer data collected through questionnaire was narrowed down to 100. The collected answers were up to the satisfactory level and useful for making the analysis. “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

c. Identify how you will analyze and present your data, including any theoretical frameworks, constructs and models, you may employ.

Theoretical frameworks:

In this research, both primary and secondary data for the purpose of the study are included and it comprises qualitative as well as quantitative data. Thus, the researcher will use mixed methodology for achieving research objectives. The data found from the study will be analysed throughout suitable methods such as “graphical representation” (Engels, 1999, p. 92), tabulation or other suitable means. Where feasible and appropriate, if the data demands it, the similar will be subjected to statistical analysis for drawing conclusions based on the results and findings.

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The effective use of databases needs a technique for collecting, storing and analysing huge amounts of data. “Data mining” (Han, Kamber and Pei, 2011, p. 125) is described as a procedure of exploring previously unknown but significant data by filtering big data collections and using a mixture of model building, pattern-recognition and validation methods. It is an interactive computer-based method using statistics to collect and sort data into a format, which is appropriate for analysis. The procedure includes checking errors, organizing “data” (p. 83) and reducing irrelevant information. Afterward, the information is extracted into a particular trend or pattern, and then data are analysed to decide how suitably they match. During this step, the data are set to be used and unwanted data is left out. “Data mining” (p. 125) is the analysis and exploration, by semiautomatic or automatic means, of large amounts of data so as to find out meaningful rules and patterns. This procedure includes a series of the following steps:

After evaluating the objectives of the customer and getting all essential previous information, one selects target information set. This indicates concentrating on a separation of variables or on samples of data.

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The target data are cleaned and pre-processed so as to remove outliers or noise. One also has to choose how to control missing data areas.
Useful qualities have to be discovered to symbolize the data, dependent on the objective of the “discovery task” (Engels, 1999, p. 139). The dimensionality is reduced, that is, one has to discover the efficient quantity of variables under invariant symbols for the data. “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

The main goals of the “knowledge discovery process” (p. 62) are forecasting the future charges of interesting variables in data.
According to this objective, a suitable data-mining algorithm is selected and applied. There are algorithms for classification, association, sequence-based analysis, clustering and other duties.

The models are evaluated and interpreted with the help of visualization tools.
After all step, one could return to any further step proceeding to the latest step.
Therefore, the “knowledge discovery process” (p. 62) might include a lot of loops among any two steps. So as to ensure that the extracted data created by the data mining algorithms is useful, extra activities are necessary, like incorporating suitable prior information and correct understanding of the results of data mining.

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Generally, “CRM” (Ajami et al., 2012, p. 169) promises high profits on investments for companies by increasing customer-oriented procedures, for example marketing, sales and customer service. Data mining helps businesses build profitable and personal customer relationships by anticipating and identifying the requirements of customers during the “customer life cycle” (Rodpysh, Aghai and Majdi, 2012). Data mining could help to decrease information excess, overload and streamline it for business decision making and formulating effective customer centric strategies. This is attained by refining and deriving helpful knowledge during a process of searching for dealings and models from the general data gathered by organizations. The extracted data is used to classify, predict and review customer data patterns, trends. “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

“Data mining techniques” (2012), for example neural networks, rule induction, genetic algorithms, rough sets, and fuzzy logic are used for categorization and model recognition in a lot of industries. Data mining develops models of “customer behaviour” (Marakas, 2003, p. 72) by using machine-learning and “statistical techniques” (p. 80). The essential purpose is to make a model for one condition in which the output or answer is identified, and then apply that model to an additional situation in which the output or answer is desired. The greatest applications of the methods are included with data stores and other flexible, interactive business tools. Therefore, the applications of data-mining could help businesses to recognize market sections including consumers with high income potential, by looking for patterns between the various variables that act as successful predictors of “purchasing habits” (p. 72). Marketers could then implement and design campaigns, which will improve the purchasing decisions of a targeted section. To assist this movement, marketers feed the information-mining productivity into “campaign management software,” (Sumathi and Sivanandam, 2006, p. 354) which focuses on the clear segments of market.

Following are the important ways of increasing profitability through data mining:

For attracting extra appropriate customers: “Data mining” (p. 318) could help businesses recognize which consumers are most ready to buy particular products and services, therefore enabling companies to expand targeted marketing plans for higher response rates and enhanced returns on investment.
For better up-selling and cross-selling: Businesses could enhance their “value proposition” (p. 170) by offering extra products and services that are truly desired by consumers, thereby increasing and reinforcing purchasing behavior and satisfaction levels.

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For better retention: The techniques of “Data mining” (p. 318) could recognize that consumers are more ready sway and why. A business could use this data to make ideas that permit them to keep these clients.

Furthermore, there are other ways in which data mining supports CRM plans, and they are as follows:
“Database marketing” (Kotler, 2007, p. 99): Data mining assists database marketers to expand operations that are closer to the targeted desires, needs and attitudes of their consumers. If the essential data resides in a record, data mining could model a broad range of consumer activities. The important goal is to recognize models that are applicable to present business problems. Thus, data mining could assist in answering several questions, which would ultimately boost campaign response rates and “customer satisfaction” (p. 88) that eventually enhances “sales forecast” (p. 72) and returns on investment.

“Customer acquisition” (John, 2008, p. 27): The business strategy of hotel depends greatly on obtaining new customers. Although skilled marketers frequently can select the correct set of demographic condition, the procedure helps in difficulties with the pattern complexity, volume and granularity of consumer data. Emphasizing the challenges of consumer segmentation has resulted in an unstable development in “consumer databases” (p. 27). Data mining offers various customer segmentation answers which could raise the response charge for a “customer acquisition” (Awad and Ghaziri, 2010, p. 373) campaigns. Marketers require using creativity and knowledge to tailor interesting and new offers for consumers recognized through data-mining process. “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

Campaign optimization: A lot of marketing businesses have various methods to interact with prospective and current customers. The procedure of optimising an advertising campaign creates a mapping among the business set of offers and a specified set of consumers, which satisfies the constraints and characteristics of a campaign, describes the marketing channels to be utilized, and identifies the related time parameters. Data mining could raise the efficacy of “campaign optimisation” (p. 373) procedures by modelling the channel particular reactions of consumers to marketing offers.

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All the interviewees demonstrated a preference for “data mining” (p. 528) as did Hotel Horizon data source in developing consumer service and decreasing costs. Additionally, they all opinionated, that data mining to be significant to keep strong dealings with the channel associates. The retail and wholesale tourist agents were analysed as an extension of the team of hotel guest relations and sales. In terms of their relationships of hotels with consumers, every functional director agreed with “customer retention” (John, 2008, p. 27) an integral part of the hotel business and that CRM helped them actively.

According to the results of interview and questionnaire distributed, it was clear that Horizon International Hotel have previously attempted to create use of the technique of data mining. All administrators agreed that the development brought about by data mining was helpful in keeping consumers for Hotel Horizon International. The administrators interviewed as well shared the estimation that “data mining” (Awad and Ghaziri, 2010, p.528) can act as a tool to start, enhance and maintain long-term dealings with consumers. Thus, the research is deemed to suggest a procedure of “data mining” (p. 528), which sounds sensible for small and average-sized hotels to optimize their competitiveness. The steps are explained below:

Step 1: Collect customer data from bookings of accommodation and the registration process of membership. In catering division, room division can help hotels to recover other important information from records of hotel, for example, frequency of stay, special requests and spending behaviour.
Step 2: Utilize data mining to collect data from “collected information” (John, 2008, p. 1541) connected to every customer’s demands or purchases. By utilizing classification methods, consumers are arranged into pre-distinct parts that permit the structure and size of groups to be observed. In the ending, an analyst of marketing can use the demographic data to assign consumers to segments.
Step 3: Categorize the targeted sectors using “data mining” Awad and Ghaziri, 2010, p.528) to recognize groups of consumers with related track and behaviors and measure the reactions of customers to various offers. CRM strategies could be devised after this segment and used to create good enduring dealings with customers.
Step 4: Develop facilities according to the responses gathered from the targeted groups. High productivity consumers could be retained by using “data mining” (p. 528) to modify the facilities consistent with their preferences. “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

Conclusions: “Customer-Relationship-Management in Hotels in Locations of Cultural-Significance”.

Overall, the findings of the study show that customer relation management is the key to receiving customer satisfaction and delight. The personalised customer care and satisfaction through CRM by Hotel Horizon international, is well appreciated by their customers. This research reflects that Guruvayoor has a significant culture oriented pilgrimage centre for the tourists and visitors rated Hotel Horizon international, and its hospitality above average. Thus, it can be concluded that although keeping pace with varying tourism market needs, the necessity and willingness to meet up the business challenges through CRM can be made more effective. CRM will make all concerted efforts to affect all the major functions in the hospitality industry, and make it more customer centric and market oriented in the hotel industry.

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Declaration of Original Content

I declare that the work in this assessment was carried out in accordance with the regulations of the University of Gloucestershire and is original except where indicated by specific reference in the text. No part of the assessment has been submitted as part of any other academic award.
Any views expressed in this assessment are those of the author and in no way represent those of the University.

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