Infection-Control-Practice in Management of Pressure-Ulcer


Being as medical student the author comes up with many difficulties people faced on being on hospital bed and under treatment but scientific world has done remarkable job and now we are able to cure all of pathologies almost very few left uncured “Infection-Control-Practice in Management of Pressure-Ulcer”. We are living in the age of science and technology. As a result of this factor of developing science, there has been a cure to many of the diseases. This report is solely based upon the investigation of pressure ulcers to get a better understanding of controlling it. Another aspect that plays a major role is the incorporation of the disease to management such that it could get controlled effectively. Pressure ulcers, also called decubitus ulcers, bedsores, or pressure sores, range in severity from reddening of the skin to severe, deep craters with exposed muscle or bone (Roberts et. al, 2000). Pressure ulcers significantly threaten the well-being of patients with limited mobility. Although 70 percent of ulcers occur in persons older than 65 years, younger patients with neurologic impairment or severe illness are also susceptible (Kramer et. al, 2002) “Infection-Control-Practice in Management of Pressure-Ulcer”.

The high caliber of medicinal consideration organizations appreciate today is tons of exertion by doctors, PhDs, and other restorative experts researching the reasons for and potential medicines for malady. Bits of knowledge gave by medicinal research today guarantee to reduce the effect of today’s most prominent wellbeing issues, including diabetes, disease, and coronary illness. When they bolster therapeutic examination, they are helping restorative analysts construct the eventual fate of medication. The awareness of Ulcer and its related treatment is also a very important topic to be researched on. I have gathered the information and compare the different management styles of preventing the infection of ulcer in different regions like India and UK. In this study the information and awareness regarding the Ulcer and its immediate treatment are discussed and elaborated. Read more Assignment Solved Blog

Infection Control practice pertaining to Pressure Ulcer: UK & India

England and India are two countries that allocate and spend a lot of funds on researching and brining on innovation in pressure ulcer treatment and facilitating the patients. Ideas are discussed for betterment of their companies in terms of trade of medical products between the two countries which bear positive results. The best results are produced by devoted, knowledgeable health care assistants from various orders cooperating for the regular objective of comprehensive patient consideration. In India, as pressure ulcer has developed, it requires urgent attention and timely treatment. There are various methodologies used as treatment for various patients. “Infection-Control-Practice in Management of Pressure-Ulcer”.

In most of the cases in India, the management was unable to diagnose and classify the stage of the pressure due to which there were a lot of deaths. Practitioner and others who were responsible for diagnosis of the stage did not have the requisite education and hence they could not properly classify the sort of tissues. The faced problems while making the distinctions between pressure ulcer and other wounds and would often confuse between them. Taking into consideration the inflation, later proof from different nations proposes that these are generous figures. Expenses increased with ulcer grade in light of the fact that the time to mend such ulcers was longer and on the grounds that the frequency of inconveniences is higher in more serious cases. Weight ulcers are avoidable, weight harm may be demonstrative of clinical carelessness and there is proof that prosecution could soon turn into a significant danger to human services suppliers in the UK, as it is in the USA. Read more Assignment Solved Blog

Healing monitoring is performed in India to assess the situation of the wound of the pressure ulcer patients. In India, re-assessment is not performed due to the lack of resources. Patient is checked for a while and then the treatment is done, no further checkups are done except for some standardized hospitals with private authority but not having governmental authority.

In UK, conventions of consideration were produced which reflect great clinical practice in the treatment of weight ulcers of diverse grades (European Pressure Ulcer Advisory). These protocols define the average daily supplies that are in need to provide a complete satisfying treatment. Cost is allocated as per the rules of NHS costing regulations. The costing accept that patients are nurtured in an institutional setting (clinic or long haul care) however are most certainly not conceded exclusively for the consideration of a weight ulcer (Russo, & Elixhauser, 2006). Resources that were utilized include the nurse employment time which includes dressings of the wounds, repositioning and risk analysis skills. “Infection-Control-Practice in Management of Pressure-Ulcer”.

Pain management is also a crucial part of pressure ulcer treatment process, but in India this step is quite neglected as this has no physical effect on the treatment rather it only affects the patient psyche in terms of pain. The approach in India is to heal the patient first ignoring the side effects in whatever condition. In India, quantitative tissue culture is used to identify and diagnose the infection of pressure ulcer. In UK, other resources are comprised of anti-toxins, analytic tests, bolster surfaces and inpatient days wherever it is suitable. Inpatient expenses are incorporated for a little extent of the patients who create muddling, for example, cellulites or osteomyelitis. The expense of bolster surfaces expect gear is bought instead of leased (which is for the most part more costly). It is not represented the extra expenses of treating ulcers growing on the heel in patients with essentially fringe vascular sickness or weight ulcers happening in patients with diabetes. Everyday expenses were evaluated by ulcer evaluation for patients who recuperate typically (without significant ulcer-related confusions) furthermore, for three further conditions reflecting the most basic wellsprings of postponed mending: discriminating colonization, cellulites and osteomyelitis (Callaghan, 2013). Read more Assignment Solved Blog

To manage the pressure ulcer, the caretaker should completely be aware of the magnitude of the situation or the stage. The one thing that can prevent the future pressure ulcer is to perform a proper skin check of the entire body. It is assessing the pressure points of the body like, sacrum, trochanter, elbows, heels, ischium and also the back of the head. Patient shaving incontinence should start a bowel and bladder program. And if it is out of control the cleaning of the skin and use blockage cream to protect it (Marquis, B., Huston, 2003). “Infection-Control-Practice in Management of Pressure-Ulcer”.

In UK, hazard evaluation starts by recognizing danger elements and reviewing the skin. The caretaker is instructed about dangers of wrong evaluation and assessing patients to counteract weight ulcers or recognize them at right on time stages. Risk assessment has less impact on preventing the pressure ulcer but it highlights the awareness regarding the subject with limited anticipation capability (Copeland & Hewson, 2000). To identify the risks associated with the pressure ulcer, ‘Braden scale’ is utilized. The treatment procedure of pressure ulcers is integrated which includes essential consideration doctors, dermatologists, irresistible malady advisors, social labourers, analysts, dieticians, podiatrists, home and wound-consideration medical caretakers, recovery experts, and specialists.

In India, all the patients who are bedridden, on the wheel chair, and bound not to move are exposing to pressure ulcer. Expert knowledge of the subject and ample skills to handle such patients are vital because if the required treatment has not done and the applicable procedures are not performed by the nurses or the staff, the patient’s life is in jeopardy and patient could die within 5 months or so. Overseeing pressure ulcers remains a challenge that tests and requires a multidisciplinary approach to deal with consideration (Kozier et al. 2008). Nurses should be trained enough to handle the patient symptoms, like pain management. The recognition of pain and the effects of the wound should be identified by physician and followed up by care workers. It is being observed that often in cases that nurses do not provide the support to the patient and hence the patients loses the positive frame of recovering and thinks negatively of disease. “Infection-Control-Practice in Management of Pressure-Ulcer”.

Another important procedure towards prevention of ‘Pressure ulcer’ is to have ample amount of nutrition in the body. The first step is to identify the factors that are leading to reduce the protein intake and perform the remedy as soon as possible. Nutritional supplements should be available for the patient considering the side effects. Keeping the patient hydrated with ample amount of water, multivitamins should be administered within a limit prescribed by the doctor. Read more Assignment Solved Blog

Proposed Change Method and Assessment of Rationale

For the purpose of incorporating creative management and also providing effective education to the staff members so that they are better equipped to identify and treat pressure ulcers are being introduced. In order to improve the situation from what it was in the past, there has been a modification of the vision to cope with the system of staff rota and inadequate staffing. Staff members are duly trained and effective communication is implemented regarding the changes that have been initiated. They are kept abreast about what is happening by means of feedback pertaining to providing updates regarding the different sorts of infections. Proper supervision is done of the junior nurses so that any mistake can be checked at the onset which in turn reduces the scope of infection spread. “Infection-Control-Practice in Management of Pressure-Ulcer”.

The Kurt Lewin’s change management model is mostly used as conceptual model for interpretation of change into clinical practice like pressure ulcer management. According to this model, research interpretation into practice needs a strong foundation in mode of change management, research exploitation principles, and usage of standardized taxonomy. The three major phases of Levin’s model are Unfreeze, Change and Freeze (Marquis and Huston, 2003). Read more Assignment Solved Blog

The first phase of change model of Kurt Lewin is unfreezing. This entails understanding procedure that there is an essential stage is to forego the old treatment procedures and methods. This procedure is also concerned about situational preparation in which there is a desire for a change (Marquis and Huston, 2003). In this phase, direction to a group of clinical knowledge based on evidences related to pressure relieving cushion and mattresses in the avoiding of pressure ulcer is presented. It can be comprised of a written orientated e-training module, with theories, reasons and followed by pictoral representations that helps to clinical, nurses to comprehend what needs to be done for patients’ caring process in new medical procedure and technique. They should hold excellent evaluation skills and have good judgment and personal communication skills in order to interpret or anticipate patient’s the requirements during treatment (Copeland & Hewson, 2000). The formal medical research for health states those medical practices, the orientation in innovative care policies and protocols in controlling symptoms of patients help the learning model as the key to spread best practices treatment procedures. In formulation of change management procedure, the debate of every method of pressure ulcers management interventions that comprises essential background knowledge, with vigilantly selected photographs of techniques with theoretically accurate representation. This will help a stage wise learning to understand and comprehend the issues and improve the thoughts when executing the needed capabilities in practice. Information is also shown in layout when the capability is one that is employed with patients and when the procedure is suitable to the expertise. This type of prominence strengthens the mental thinking to a planned procedure is related to practice to make sure the rehabilitation and safety of patients. “Infection-Control-Practice in Management of Pressure-Ulcer”.

The second phase is referred to transition or change where the major emphasis is to find motive for a movement to assist changes. Training is a part of process in this phase while the effective control over competency and knowledge helps in executing intervention and skills which may be accomplished in actual or on-the-job trainings necessary in this phase (Marquis and Huston, 2003). Content wise it entails a grouping of several disciplines, comprising characteristics of multidisciplinary sciences to encourage maintenance and restoration of patients’ health. The major problems in this phase comprises complexity of the techniques learnt in trainings which makes sure effectiveness of skills learnt and program amalgamation with current healthcare practices. The seminars, trainings and sustaining new technique practices will enable to roll out throughout by involving others (Young, 2009). The change agents are nurses and health care workers who undergo the training and then becomes the change agent in their own work area. All through the actual learning practice and teaching session team members get comprehensible clarifications of the patho-physiological processes and condition of human injury and illness. It integrates information as fundamental constituent of evidenced based practice and medical practice. These actions highlight the nurses’ role as significant healthcare team member, performing joint activities to accomplish maximum probable revival for each patient. Through the means of prioritising interventions and diagnoses particular to distorted reactions to disease and illnesses circumstances, team provides them high-valued care. Case studies are provided that helps to understand the case specific situations and type of remedial actions opted for. To foresee the patient as an individual requiring and needing healthcare and obtain necessary information related to specific case is also a major concern. There is also need to promote decision making and critical thinking which is vital for each healthcare individual in medical practices. These are abilities and skills that an individual should have for effective management of patient particularly wound care (Closs et al. 2004). Read more Assignment Solved Blog

In this phase, teaching discussions and sessions is extremely significant due to required need to improve the learning through gaining awareness derived from theories and concepts application. Individual may actually communicate and elucidate clinical practices and some information throughout these meetings. Assisting each other in accomplishing appropriate competency and knowledge in nursing practice of pressure ulcer management is also instinctive with this type of discussions and meetings. The conversation or debate of each skill in practicing effective management of anti-ulcer starts with a patho-physiology indication pursued through the complications and manifestation is extremely efficient particularly when it is being compared with the authentic practice in managing patients’ wound care. Emphasizing on diversity and show the associated factors are also an essential to generate primary information and application of nursing principle and theories (Brancato, 2006). “Infection-Control-Practice in Management of Pressure-Ulcer”.

The third phase of Lewin’s change management model is referred to freezing. This phase describes the stability development once the essential changes have been completed. Institutions should begin the stability development of a useful usage of cushions and mattresses to prevent or relieve the pressure ulcers. The major emphasis of such change procedure is to maximize the newly acquired competencies, skills and knowledge of healthcare providers, nurses and permit them to comprehend the significance of their newer responsibilities (Marquis and Huston, 2003). The change should assist them in alteration of previous methodology deployed and also facilitate new methods in groups, to push the efficient healthcare methods in medical setting persistently. This phase will generate questions as barriers in knowledge between individuals associated in the process of change management. Read more Assignment Solved Blog

Knowledge is a part of effective learning process and experiential learning process is necessary in real nursing clinical practices. It is mainly emphasized on instinctive motivations and potentials supported through acquaintance of an experiential learning background. The intensity or richness of the knowledge inculcation, constructive skills and values of an individual is not merely emphasized on the inborn capability of individual to think, cause, appraise and interrelate in a knowledgeable environment. It evenly relies on change eminence, learning newer methods and experiences of application oriented methodology which tests the ability of individual. This will define the route of being competent and effective nursing consultant.

This phase is most critical as well as technical as the clinical methods deployed and theoretical practice competency needs fail proof outcomes for the patients (Grossman, 2010). Nursing practitioners requires a proper framework of quality health care services and competent healthcare to their patients. To be an efficient healthcare practitioner, this type of healthcare management offered with special judgment capability of one’s self experience and improved learning emphasized on trainings and practices engaged formerly throughout continuing education, graduate studies, trainings, workshops, undergraduate, and arrangements for learning modules or seminars comprising the onsite orientation and printed paper (Lichtman et al. 2003). Read more Assignment Solved Blog

The rationale for the usage of Lewin’s change management model and the issue analysis stated in above discussion is geared towards a recognizable arrangement where healthcare practitioners and nurses will have best practices knowledge of hospital resources required to execute effective change process in pressure ulcer prevention. After completing the change management model, healthcare service providers will be capable to focus their delivery towards assessing the patient, outline treatment criteria and aid patients using with alternative best practices (Lichtman et al. 2003). Healthcare services providers will become highly self-assured in pedagogical practices for contribution knowledge, experience, coaching skills and helping other in their knowledge which is necessary constituents of efficient caring practice. The nature of health care workers, their behaviors isn’t innate or automatic; all may be learned via professional practices in an organisational (hospital) culture setting which further can be fueled by on the job training for experiential learning. The result will be determined by favorable appraisal tool, patient (patient family feedback) and methods in order to appraise the correctness and the end result of study. The evaluation plan will be executed and assessed in relation with goals and objectives of the standards of healthcare and treatment. The final result will help to locate the gap among planned goals and actual outcome at the closing stages of patient care. Read more Assignment Solved Blog

Conclusion: “Infection-Control-Practice in Management of Pressure-Ulcer”.

Executing an evidence-based program for prevention of pressure ulcer can lessen the prevalence of hospital-gained pressure ulcers as well as pressure ulcer from any source having any possible epidemiology as it is not something not curable throughout world, treating ulcer was illusion once but it’s quite practical now. But to sustain such improvement and to have possible positive outcomes, sensitive healthcare facilities should execute preventative practices consistently and efficiently, knowledgeable staff should be over the patient based on physician pharmacist nurses and all care givers. The accomplishment of professional attempts shows that it’s doable to change the culture of hospital for prevention pressure ulcer. Different constituents that helped to that success comprised effective leadership, keenness of care givers devoted physician and nurse participation, thoughts of individual responsibility, improved communication and documentation, continuing education, and a selection of low-tech changes to actual practices. These elements can be engendered and used.

Kozier, Erb, Snyder & Berman (2008) states that managing wound and its prevention is an illustration of scientific expertises education which relates to recognized evaluation formulated to improve the skills or knowledge of nursing practitioners or educators. The application of such new skills and knowledge about relieving pressure cushion and mattresses in the pressure ulcer relieving, the capability to study definite medical practice and the orientation in hospital policies and protocols in controlling requests of patients will be accomplished. It has been have reported through past studies that gaps among nursing researches and practice and recognized diverse issues that avoid the substantiation to experimental practice to interpret into medical situations (Brancato 2006). Such issues in application of evidence-based practice like effective utilization of mattresses and cushion to avoid pressure ulcer in medical cases have been constant across various research studies. A major problem related to invention and growth of modern nursing and medical information, the confrontation of profession has frequently been integrated using innovative methods of training (Young, 2009).

The above discussion advocates that new practices are emphasized normally on intuition, experience and tradition as compared to science validation. Additionally, the increasing numbers of researches and studies formulated to design and enhance practices at the staff level of nurses to motivate in improving their understanding, research awareness and skills.

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